A cervical polyp is a small growth on or near the surface of the cervix. The
cervix is the opening between the vagina and the uterus. Cervical polyps are
usually benign, or noncancerous, and rarely cause symptoms.
What is going on in the body?
Cervical polyps are formed when a group of cells, such as blood vessels within
the cervix, form an abnormal growth. Cervical polyps are relatively common.
They are seen more often in women over 20 years of age who have given birth to
many children. They are rare before puberty and after menopause.
Most cervical polyps are benign, but all should be removed and examined with a
microscope. Malignant changes may occur, and cancer of the cervix
may first be seen as a large polyp. The chance of malignant change in a
cervical polyp is less than 1%.
What are the causes and risks of the condition?
It is not known what causes cervical polyps. Their growth may be aided by
estrogen, a female hormone, or by chronic cervical infection, known as
cervicitis. Such chronic inflammation creates more blood vessels
within the cervix, which may eventually form a cervical polyp.