Alternate Names : Diabetes
What are the treatments for the disease?
Treatment depends on the type of diabetes that is present. A person with
type 1 diabetes
will most likely need insulin shots each day. These shots replace the insulin
that the pancreas cannot make on its own. A proper diet is also a key to staying healthy.
Gestational diabetes is also usually treated with diet and insulin shots as needed.
The most effective treatment available for type 2 diabetes is a change in lifestyle, including the following:
Loss of as little as 10 to 15 pounds can help keep blood glucose under control.
Healthy eating. A healthy
diet can help with weight loss. And that can prevent the need for medicine.
Walking only 30 minutes a day can lead to better glucose control.
A person with type 2 diabetes may also be treated with
oral medicines and/or insulin shots. Diabetes pills can work in four ways.
They can stimulate the pancreas to make more insulin.
They can help the cells in the body use insulin and glucose better.
They can keep the starches that are eaten from being broken down into glucose in
They can reduce the amount of glucose that is released from the liver.
Treating the underlying condition or stopping a certain medicine may
correct diabetes that is caused by medicine or an illness. If this is not possible,
diet, exercise, and pills or shots are used to control the blood glucose.
Careful monitoring and management help keep diabetes under
control and reduce the risk of long-term effects. A person with diabetes should:
monitor his or her blood glucose levels at home
take medicines as prescribed by the doctor
know how to recognize and treat hypoglycemia,
which is low blood glucose
get regular eye checkups that include an examination of the retina after the
pupil of the eye has been dilated with eye drops
do thorough foot care
on a daily basis
follow a plan to monitor and treat changing blood glucose levels when sick or
follow a healthy diet
have regular checkups with the doctor
get a pneumonia shot
get a flu shot each fall
Treating the complications of diabetes may involve many different
specialists. For example, a person with diabetes may need to see eye, heart, foot,
hormone, and circulation specialists. Dieticians also help people with diabetes by
designing a healthy eating plan. Dieticians can also suggest healthy calorie intake levels
and types of foods to eat.
What are the side effects of the treatments?
Side effects depend on the treatments used. If a person
has too much insulin in his or her body, the blood glucose levels can drop too low.
This condition, called hypoglycemia,
can cause the following symptoms:
The usual treatment for low blood glucose is to drink a sweet beverage or eat a sweet
food. If low blood glucose goes untreated, a person may pass out or
have seizures. Emergency medical care is crucial in this situation.
Some of the oral medicines used for type 2 diabetes may cause weight
loss or gain,
or liver damage. Some may also cause low blood glucose levels.
What happens after treatment for the disease?
Diabetes generally cannot be cured, but it can be controlled with
careful management and treatment. A person with diabetes will need to
have close medical follow-up throughout his or her life to control blood glucose
levels and prevent serious complications.
How is the disease monitored?
A person with diabetes should keep all of his or her appointments
with his or her primary doctor, as well as other scheduled specialists.
Physical exams, blood tests, urine tests, foot and skin care, routine eye exams,
and routine dental care are all part of basic care for a person with diabetes. The
main goal of treatment is to keep blood glucose levels as close to a healthy range
as is safely possible. In general, ideal ranges of blood glucose levels are 80 to 120
milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) before meals and 100 to 140 mg/dL at bedtime. Any
new or worsening symptoms should be reported to the doctor.