Gingivitis and Periodontitis
Alternate Names : Swollen Gums, Gum Infection, Gingivostomatitis, Trench Mouth, Pyorrhea
What is going on in the body?
Gingivitis and periodontitis can be considered one disease complex, with gingivitis leading to periodontitis in some cases. Gingivitis often goes unnoticed in the early stages and may cause no symptoms until it is fairly advanced.
When gingivitis is advanced, it spreads to the bony tissues, which lie under the gums and support the teeth. This is called periodontitis which is much more serious than gingivitis.
In later stages of periodontitis, the teeth can become loose and severely infected with pus oozing from around the sockets. In very advanced periodontitis, the teeth can actually fall out or may have to be removed because of infection. Gum disease is the major cause of premature tooth loss.
Gingivitis and periodontitis are caused by bacteria, which are incorporated into a substance called dental plaque. Plaque begins as a soft and sticky substance, which forms constantly on all areas of the teeth. This soft material gets into every area in the mouth. It is especially harmful in areas where it is hard to see and hard to remove, such as between the teeth, and in the crevices between the gum and the tooth surface.
The longer this material is allowed to set, the more difficult it is to remove. At some point, this plaque hardens and has to be scraped off the teeth. In the early stages, it can be brushed and flossed off the teeth but once it has set and formed tartar or calculus, it must be removed by a dentist or dental hygienist.
The bacteria in this plaque material is the primary cause of the problem. The bacteria in plaque or tartar produces irritating substances that cause gingivitis and periodontitis.
What are the causes and risks of the disease?
If untreated, periodontitis can lead to the loss of teeth. It is the biggest single factor in tooth loss in adults. If treated early in the gingivitis stage, loss of teeth is usually preventable.