Alternate Names : Total Parental Nutrition, TPN, Central Hyperalimentation, Parental Hyperalimentation
Hyperalimentation is a procedure in which nutrients and vitamins
are given to a person in liquid form through a vein. It is only given to
someone who cannot get nutrients from food.
Who is a candidate for the procedure?
Hyperalimentation is used for people with health problems that prevent
them from absorbing enough nutrients through their stomachs. It is also used when a person is severely malnourished and cannot take in food by mouth.
Hyperalimentation might be used:
before surgery if the person is
malnourished. This can be caused by:
congenital abnormalities causing disorders of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, such as esophageal atresia
esophageal stricture, which is a narrowing of the esophagus
esophageal cancer or stomach cancer
after surgery if a person is not recovering as quickly as expected or has complications relating to the surgery. This can be caused by:
prolonged ileus, a severe blockage in the intestines
short bowel syndrome, which occurs after someone has large amount of small intestines removed
a fistula, an abnormal passageway between two internal organs, or leading from an internal organ to the surface of the body
peritonitis, a severe
infection in the abdominal cavity
if a person has inflammatory bowel disease, including:
if a person cannot eat or is unable to absorb nutrients from food. This
may be caused by:
cancer of the GI tract, such as
chemotherapy or radiation therapy
major trauma, such as a motor vehicle accident
an eating disorder called anorexia nervosa
How is the procedure performed?
A central line is a special intravenous or IV line that is inserted through the chest and threaded
into one of the large veins that lie close to the heart. A central line,
rather than an IV line in an arm, must be used for this procedure because the solution is highly concentrated.
The hyperalimentation solution is tailored to the needs of the person, and contains:
glucose, or sugar
electrolytes, such as potassium and sodium