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Tacrolimus ( ta-KROE-li-mus) ointment is used for moderate to severe atopic dermatitis. This is a skin condition where there is itching, redness and inflammation, much like an allergic reaction






You are here : 3-RX.com > Medical Encyclopedia > Diseases and Conditions > Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Treatment & Monitoring
      Category : Health Centers > Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Alternate Names : Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus, IDDM, Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus | Symptoms & Signs | Diagnosis & Tests | Prevention & Expectations | Treatment & Monitoring

What are the treatments for the disease?

Treatment for type 1 diabetes is focused on controlling blood glucose levels. This is done with insulin shots. Insulin can be injected under the skin a certain number of times per day, or may be given with an insulin pump. Home blood glucose monitoring is also used to help guide dose adjustments. There are many types of insulin. The doctor can help decide what will work best for each person. Insulin levels must be balanced with meals, daily activities, stress, and illness, as all of these can affect the glucose level in the blood.

Treatment also includes following a proper diet for people with diabetes and getting the right amount of exercise. Less often, treatment may require a pancreas transplant, which may get rid of the symptoms of type 1 diabetes. Careful monitoring and management helps keep diabetes under control and can reduce long-term effects.

People who have type 1 diabetes can help manage it by following these steps:

  • Adjust for blood glucose levels when sick or stressed.
  • Have regular visits with a doctor.
  • Know the symptoms of hypoglycemia, which is also called low blood glucose, and how to treat it.
  • Monitor blood glucose levels at home.
  • Perform proper skin care and foot care and get regular eye examinations.
  • Plan meals and eat the right diet for a person with diabetes.
  • Take all medicines, including insulin, exactly as prescribed by the doctor.
  • Treating the complications of diabetes may involve several specialists. For example, eye, heart, foot, hormone, and circulation specialists may be needed. Dietitians can help people with diabetes set up an eating plan with suggestions for calorie intake and types of foods to eat.

    What are the side effects of the treatments?

    Too much insulin in the body means blood glucose levels can drop too low. This condition is known as hypoglycemia. It can cause nervousness, shakiness, and confusion. If this condition goes untreated, a person can pass out. The usual treatment for low blood glucose is to eat or drink something sweet. If symptoms progress to passing out, or if the person has spasms or seizures, immediate medical attention is needed.

    Side effects of other treatments depend on the treatment used. A pancreas transplant is a major operation. It carries the risk of bleeding, infection, and allergic reaction to anesthesia. To prevent rejection of the new pancreas, powerful medicines with many side effects have to be taken for a long time.

    What happens after treatment for the disease?

    Treatment of diabetes lasts a lifetime. Type 1 diabetes cannot usually be cured, but it can be controlled with careful management and treatment. Any complications that do occur must be treated promptly.

    How is the disease monitored?

    Monitoring type 1 diabetes is a lifelong process. People with type 1 diabetes should check their blood glucose at least 3 times a day at home with a finger-stick blood glucose test. There are portable devices on the market that can measure blood glucose at home. Blood tests, urine tests, foot and skin exams, eye exams, and visits with specialists are all part of routine monitoring for diabetes. Any new or worsening symptoms should be reported to the doctor.


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    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Prevention & Expectations

     

    Author: Eileen McLaughlin, RN, BSN
    Reviewer: Melinda Murray Ratini, DO
    Date Reviewed: 08/15/02



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