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You are here : 3-RX.com > Medical Encyclopedia > Tests and Exams > Urinalysis: Results and Values
      Category : Health Centers > Urinary System & Kidneys


Alternate Names : Routine Urine Test, Urine Appearance and Color

Urinalysis | Preparation & Expectations | Results and Values

What do the test results mean?

Normal test results for urine are:

  • color: varies from colorless to dark yellow. Certain foods may stain it.
  • specific gravity: ranges from 1.006 to 1.030. The higher the number, the more concentrated the urine.
  • pH, or relative acidity or alkalinity: ranges from 4.6 to 8.0. The average is 6.0, which is slightly acidic.
  • sugars, ketones, and proteins: None present.
  • blood: no red blood cells or hemoglobin are present.
  • bilirubin: none.
  • white blood cells: none.
  • Abnormal test results for urine are:

  • color: other than normal.
  • specific gravity: higher or lower values. This may indicate kidney disorders. Exceptions are those related to food or liquid intake.
  • pH: overly acidic or alkaline urine. This warrants medical attention.
  • sugar and ketones,usually tested together: high levels of glucose and ketones may indicate diabetes.
  • protein: any present may indicate kidney disorders.
  • blood: any present may indicate bleeding from the kidney, a urinary tract infection, or trauma from rigorous exercise.
  • bilirubin: any present indicates liver or bile duct disease.
  • nitrites and white blood cells: their presence indicates a urinary tract infection.

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    Urinalysis: Preparation & Expectations


    Author: David T. Moran, MD
    Reviewer: Eileen McLaughlin, RN, BSN
    Date Reviewed: 05/04/01

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