Alternate Names : Oliguria, Decreased Urine Production
Decreased urination is often caused by dehydration. But sometimes it may indicate a more serious disease.
What is going on in the body?
The kidneys produce urine by filtering the blood. Decreased urination is usually related to one of three problems:
blockage in the tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the outside of the body
insufficient blood reaching the kidneys, so they cannot make urine
kidney damage, which makes the kidney unable to filter
What are the causes and risks of the condition?
Causes of decreased urination can be divided into three categories:
Insufficient amounts of blood reaching the kidneys. This may be due to:
dehydration from vomiting, diarrhea, excessive sweating, or inability to take in fluids. Medicines, such as a diuretic, or water pill, can also cause dehydration.
a heart that cannot pump enough blood to the kidneys, which can occur in congestive heart failure
low blood pressure from shock or a serious infection. Medicines, such as those used to treat high blood pressure, can also cause low blood pressure.
Kidney damage. This may be due to:
acute tubular necrosis, a type of kidney injury caused by low blood pressure. Another common cause is a substance that is toxic to the kidney. Examples are the antibiotic gentamicin, the metal mercury, or iodine, which is commonly used in certain X-ray tests.
autoimmune disorders, which means that a person's immune system attacks his or her own body. An example is systemic lupus erythematosus, or lupus, a condition that can affect many areas of the body.
cancer or tumors involving the kidneys
chronic renal failure, which is usually a complication of long-standing diabetes or high blood pressure. An inherited condition called polycystic kidney disease is another cause of kidney failure.
glomerulonephritis, another type of kidney damage that may occur after an infection
Blockage in the tubes that carry urine from the kidney. This may be due to:
cancer or a tumor in the bladder or prostate
kidney stones that affect both kidneys, which is rare
prostate enlargement, also called benign prostatic hyperplasia, a common condition in men older than 40
Other causes are also possible. Sometimes, the cause cannot be found.