Alternate Names : Water Diabetes, DI
Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a condition in which a person is thirsty
all the time, drinks large amounts of fluids, and produces large amounts of urine. It is not the same condition as the more commonly known diabetes mellitus.
What is going on in the body?
When a person has diabetes insipidus, it is almost as if everything he or she drinks passes right through the kidneys. The 4 forms of DI are:
central or neurogenic, in which a defect in the brain causes a shortage
of vasopressin, or antidiuretic hormone (ADH). This hormone normally tells the kidneys how much urine to release.
nephrogenic, in which a kidney defect causes an abnormal response to
pregnancy-induced, in which there is a low level of vasopressin during
primary polydipsia, which is an abnormally high level of thirst and fluid
What are the causes and risks of the disease?
Diabetes insipidus may be caused by:
brain tumor, which causes the body to produce less-than-enough vasopressin
head injury causing damage to
the pituitary gland, the part of the brain that releases vasopressin
craniotomy, or surgery on the head
infections, such as encephalitis
or meningitis, that damage the
pituitary gland or brain
some medications, such as lithium
inadequate release and response to vasopressin during pregnancy