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You are here : 3-RX.com > Medical Encyclopedia > Diseases and Conditions > End-Stage Renal Disease
      Category : Health Centers > Urinary System & Kidneys

End-Stage Renal Disease

Alternate Names : ESRD, End-Stage Kidney Disease, End-Stage Renal Failure

Overview, Causes, & Risk Factors | Symptoms & Signs | Diagnosis & Tests | Prevention & Expectations | Treatment & Monitoring

End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a condition in which there is a permanent and almost complete loss of kidney function. The kidney functions at less than 10% of its normal capacity

What is going on in the body?

Diabetes and high blood pressure are two diseases that cause more than 60% of all cases of end-stage renal disease in the US. Other conditions that can lead to end-stage renal disease include:

  • glomerulonephritis, which is swelling and scarring of the filtering part of the kidneys
  • polycystic kidneys, an inherited disorder in which cysts enlarge the kidney
  • interstitial disease, a swelling of the bladder wall
  • obstructive uropathy, or a blockage in the urinary system
  • systemic lupus erythematosus, in which there is long-term swelling of the joints, skin, and other organs
  • multiple myeloma, a cancer of the bone marrow
  • In end-stage renal disease, toxins slowly build up in the body. Normal kidneys remove these toxins from the body through urine. The toxins most commonly found are called urea and creatinine. By measuring these waste products in the blood, healthcare providers can tell if the kidneys are functioning normally.

    What are the causes and risks of the disease?

    The risk of end-stage renal disease is increased for

  • older persons
  • men
  • blacks
  • those with a family history of the disease


    Next section


    End-Stage Renal Disease: Symptoms & Signs

    Author: Rajnish K. Dhingra, MD
    Reviewer: Barbara Mallari, RN, BSN, PHN
    Date Reviewed: 05/04/01

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