Alternate Names : Gallium Nuclear Scan, Gallium Study
A gallium scan is a special type of imaging study, or x-ray test.
The test involves injecting a radioactive material called gallium into the
bloodstream. Special x-ray cameras can then take pictures of the gallium inside the body.
Who is a candidate for the test?
A gallium scan is usually used to look for an infection or cancer. In most cases, this test is used because blood tests or regular x-rays are abnormal or unclear. Common
someone who has had a fever for a long time without a known cause, also called a fever of unknown origin. In this case, the gallium scan is used to locate a small area of infection or cancer that has not yet been detected.
a person suspected of having a bone infection, also called osteomyelitis
someone with suspected lung disease. For instance, sarcoidosis is a condition that occurs for unknown
reasons. This condition can cause inflammation in the lungs that can be
detected with a gallium scan. Lung infections, such as pneumonia, can also be detected by a gallium scan.
an individual with known cancer, usually a blood cancer called lymphoma
How is the test performed?
To perform this test, gallium must be injected into a person's
vein. Usually, an intravenous line, or IV, is placed to make the injection easier. An IV is a thin
tube that is inserted through the skin and into a vein, usually in the hand or forearm. Once the IV is in place, the gallium is injected through the IV tube, which is painless.
After the injection, a waiting period is needed before the x-ray pictures are taken. This waiting period may range from 4 to 72 hours. The waiting period allows the gallium time to concentrate in any abnormal areas. The x-ray department staff will tell a person how long the waiting period is. The exact time depends on the suspected condition. The person having the test can go home, or back to the hospital room if in the hospital, and return at the given time. There will be no discomfort from the gallium.
Once the waiting time is over, a special x-ray camera is used to take pictures. This camera detects the gallium inside the person's body. The pictures do not hurt, however, the person must hold still while the pictures are taken. After the pictures are taken, which usually takes about 30 minutes, the test is over. In many cases, more than one set of pictures must be taken at different times, sometimes a full day apart. A person will be informed if this is required.