Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Alternate Names : Noninsulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus, Adult-Onset Diabetes Mellitus, NIDDM
What are the treatments for the disease?
The most effective treatment for type 2 diabetes is a change in lifestyle, including the following:
Weight loss. Loss
of as little as 10 to 15 pounds can help keep blood glucose levels under control.
Healthy eating. A healthy
diet can help with weight loss. And that can prevent the need for medicine.
Walking only 30 minutes a day can lead to better glucose control.
A person with type 2 diabetes may also be treated with
oral medicines and/or insulin shots. Diabetes pills can work in four ways.
They can stimulate the pancreas to make more insulin.
They can help the cells in the body use insulin and glucose better.
They can keep the starches that are eaten from being broken down into glucose in
They can reduce the amount of glucose that is released from the liver.
Careful monitoring and management help keep diabetes under
control and reduce the risk of long-term effects. A person with diabetes should:
monitor his or her blood glucose levels at home
take medicines as prescribed by the doctor
know how to recognize and treat hypoglycemia,
which is low blood glucose
get regular eye checkups that include an examination of the retina after the
pupil of the eye has been dilated with eye drops
do thorough foot care
on a daily basis
follow a plan to monitor and treat changing blood glucose levels when sick or
follow a healthy diet
have regular checkups with the doctor
get a pneumonia shot
get a flu shot each fall
Treating the complications of diabetes may involve many different
specialists. For example, a person with diabetes may need to see eye, heart, foot,
hormone, and circulation specialists. Dieticians also help people with diabetes by
designing a healthy eating plan. Dieticians can also suggest healthy calorie intake levels
and types of foods to eat.
What are the side effects of the treatments?
The oral medicines used for type 2 diabetes may cause weight gain, diarrhea,
gas, allergic reactions,
or liver damage. Some may also cause blood glucose levels to go too low. This condition is known as
hypoglycemia. It can
If this condition goes untreated, a person can pass out. The usual treatment for low blood
glucose is to drink a sweet beverage or eat a sweet food. If low blood glucose goes untreated, a person
may pass out or have seizures. Emergency medical care is crucial in this situation.
What happens after treatment for the disease?
Although type 2 diabetes cannot be cured, it can be controlled with careful management.
The person will need lifelong monitoring and treatment to help prevent serious complications.
How is the disease monitored?
A person with diabetes should keep all of appointments
with his or her primary doctor, as well as other scheduled specialists.
Physical exams, blood tests, urine tests, foot and skin care, routine eye exams,
and routine dental care are all part of basic care for a person with diabetes. The
main goal of treatment is to keep blood glucose levels as close to a healthy range
as is safely possible. In general, ideal ranges of blood glucose levels are 80 to 120
milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) before meals and 100 to 140 mg/dL at bedtime. Any
new or worsening symptoms should be reported to the doctor.