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Alternate Names : Dysmenorrhea. Menstrual cramps are the pain and cramping some women experience during their monthly periods. The term dysmenorrhea usually refers to pain and cramps severe enough to prevent normal activity






You are here : 3-RX.com > Medical Encyclopedia > Diseases and Conditions > Coma
      Category : Health Centers > Brain and Nervous System

Coma

Overview, Causes, & Risk Factors | Symptoms & Signs | Diagnosis & Tests | Prevention & Expectations | Treatment & Monitoring

Coma is a term that is used to describe a state of unconsciousness from which a person cannot be aroused.

What is going on in the body?

A person in a coma is unable to respond to the environment. He or she cannot be awakened by any means. A coma may or may not be reversible with treatment.

What are the causes and risks of the condition?

There are many possible causes of a coma, including:

  • medication, drug, or toxin exposure. This may include alcohol, barbiturate, or narcotic overdose, or carbon monoxide poisoning.
  • head injury
  • stroke, which is brain damage due to a lack of oxygen to the brain
  • bleeding into or around the brain. This may occur with a subdural hematoma, epidural hematoma, or subarachnoid hemorrhage.
  • infections, such as the brain infections called meningitis and encephalitis
  • low blood sugar levels, called hypoglycemia
  • out of control diabetes, which is a condition that results in high blood sugar levels
  • severe liver or kidney disease, such as end stage renal disease
  • seizures, or epilepsy, due to abnormal electrical activity in the brain
  • low oxygen levels in the blood. This can occur with severe lung or heart disease. For example, severe asthma, emphysema, irregular heartbeats, or arrhythmias, and a blood clot in the lung, called a pulmonary embolus, can all cause coma from low oxygen levels.
  • hypothermia, or abnormally low body temperature
  • severe salt imbalances. This may include an abnormally low sodium level, called hyponatremia or an overly high sodium level, called hypernatremia.
  • brain tumors
  • Other causes are also possible. Sometimes, the cause cannot be found.


       

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    Coma: Symptoms & Signs

    Author: Adam Brochert, MD
    Reviewer: Gail Hendrickson, RN, BS
    Date Reviewed: 03/29/01



    Pregnancy is the period from conception to birth. A pregnancy may be complicated by health problems or lifestyle issues known as risk factors. These risk factors can affect the mother or fetus, or both





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