Alternate Names : Strict Vegetarian OR Vegan, Ovo-Vegetarian, Lacto-Vegetarian, Lacto-Ovo-Vegetarian, Pesco-Vegetarian, Semi-Vegetarian
There are several categories of vegetarians. These include:
vegan or strict vegetarian: eats no animal foods of any kind
ovo-vegetarian: eats eggs, but no dairy foods or other animal foods
lacto-vegetarian: eats dairy foods but no other animal foods or eggs
lacto-ovo-vegetarian: eats dairy foods and eggs, but no other animal
pesco-vegetarian: eats dairy foods, eggs, and fish, but no other animal
semi-vegetarian: mostly follows a vegetarian diet but eats meat, poultry
and fish occasionally
According to the Food Guide Pyramid, a balanced diet should include 11
to 20 servings of plant foods. Only 4 to 6 of the day's food servings should
come from animal foods. This includes meat and dairy products. These guidelines
are based on studies of people around the world that show plant-based diets are
among the healthiest. However, people who choose more limited types of
vegetarian diets (such as vegan) need to do more planning to get all the
essential nutrients. They may need to take a multi-vitamin supplement. It is
recommended not to take more than 100 percent of the
Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA).
Vegetarian diets tend to be healthier, if planned correctly, than diets that
include animal foods. They contain more fiber (roughage) and are lower in fat,
saturated fat. They also tend to be lower in calories and
higher in certain vitamins and minerals. Diets based on animal
foods tend to be higher in cholesterol and saturated fat. Saturated fat is the
type of fat that has been most closely linked with an increased risk of heart
Vegetarians who eat no meat, fish, poultry or dairy foods (vegans) face the
risk of missing out on certain nutrients. These are iron, vitamin B12, vitamin D,
calcium and zinc. The following is a list of good plant sources
for these key nutrients:
This is found in legumes, tofu, dark green leafy vegetables, dried fruit,
seeds, whole grain products and iron-fortified cereals and breads.
B12. This is found in fortified foods including soymilk, vegetarian
burger patties and cereals.
D. The body makes this vitamin in the presence of sunlight. It is
also found in fortified foods such as cereals, margarine and soy beverages.
calcium. This is found in tofu, broccoli, seeds, nuts, kale, legumes,
greens, okra, rutabaga, calcium-fortified soymilk, calcium-enriched juices and
grain products. It is also found in tortillas made from lime-processed corn and
in fortified cereals.
zinc. This is found in whole grains such wheat germ and bran,
whole-wheat breads and cereals, legumes, seeds, nuts and tofu.
All plant foods contain some protein. By eating a variety of vegetables, fruits,
grains and legumes every day even vegans can get enough of this nutrient. Plant
foods do not contain all of the 9 essential amino acids, which are the building
blocks of protein. Therefore, it is crucial that vegetarians and vegans, in
particular, eat a wide variety of plant proteins every day. To maximize the
intake of essential amino acids a person should eat legumes at the same meal or
within several hours of eating grains. Legumes include peas, chickpeas,
peanuts, lentils, and any of the wide variety of beans. Grains include rice,
wheat, corn, rye, bulgur, oats, millet, and barley.
The key to healthy vegetarian diets is planning. Well-planned vegetarian diets
can be safe for children, adults, as well as, pregnant and lactating women.
Vegetarians should pay special attention to the nutrients mentioned above to
plan a healthy diet.